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Breaking the Myth of Beef in Vedas

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Breaking the Myth of Beef in Vedas
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Any lifestyle that does not cause any violence (himsā) or causes the least violence on oneself and to other living entities (including humans) in this world, is said to be the best religion that one can follow(1). Through such a religion one becomes eligible to understand and relate to the aspects of Spiritual Truth. But such Truth does not get revealed to one who is involved in killing, agitating or harming other living entities (2).

A person, for whom other living entities are not put into difficulty; one who himself does not get agitated by other living entities; and one who is steady in happiness and distress, such a person, Lord Krishna describes as very dear to Him(3).

The aim of developing a loving relationship with the Supreme Absolute Truth is the purpose of religion and any lifestyle, which shall help us to become worthy of it can be called as supreme religion or para dharma. This supreme religion should be practiced without any motivation. It should also be practiced uninterruptedly. Such religion brings complete satisfaction to the Self (4). That is the test of religion and such a religion is eligible to be called as eternal religion or sanātana dharma.

Sanātana dharma is very subtle and intricate. Therefore, it cannot be understood very easily by all. A display of false religion can be made easily to misguide and fool the population. There are many ways to do it. But to understand it, a sincere seeker should first take refuge at the feet of an expert Guru (5).

Because of ignorance, misunderstanding, misguidance and arrogance, people get deviated from the aim of religion (loving relationship with the supreme) and from the path of religion (ahiṁsā based practice). For instance, in the name of Vedic yajñas, killing was and to some extent even today, has been thought of as part of sanatana dharma.

By such wrong practices, the deluded persons become the cause for degradation of true understanding of sanātana dharma. And because of wide propagation of such wrong philosophies, even the so called great scholars and so called ascetics become disillusioned as to what is proper religion and what is not (6).

The prime example for such misguidance today is by those who are propagating that – “cow killing and eating the meat of the cow is prescribed in the Vedas”. This propagation is not a new phenomenon. History repeats itself. There are instances mentioned in the Purāṇas, wherein people like King Nahusha held this wrong view.

In the Vedas, the concept of “consciousness of yajña” or “consciousness of offerings” is unique. The process of inculcating the culture of offering everything back to the Supreme and to develop the consciousness of loving relationship with the Supreme is the purpose of yajña and not offering of the gross substances itself (7). Though yajñas might be performed to demigods, the Supreme Absolute Truth is the real beneficiary – the enjoyer and master of all yajñas (8). Yajña in this consciousness is non-different from the Supreme Consciousness Himself (9).

The definition of yajña is: bhāve pujane ca (yajña is loving devotion and worship). It should be performed without expecting any result (10). Everything we do should be a yajña (11) and whatever we consume should be as prasāda (sanctified food) after the performance of yajña.

There are many varieties of yajña prescribed in Vedas. All those yajñas must be understood to be performed by three methods – physically, mentally and through intelligence. The ultimate purpose is to move away from the bodily concept of life to the subtler aspects of the relationship between the Individual soul and the Absolute Truth(12). Other purposes of performing yajñas are for saṁskāras prescribed for a person from birth to death, for revival and for the welfare of others.

Therefore, the conclusion is that one should understand the subtler aspects of Vedic injunctions and not blindly believe that Vedas prescribe gross killing of an animal during yajña (13). There is a vivid example to such subtle aspect of yajña. In Puruṣa sūkta prayers it is said:

oṁ taṁ yajñam barhiṣi praukṣan puruṣam jātam-agrataḥ

tena devā ayajanta sādhyā ṛṣayaś-ca-ye

The devās, sādhyas and ṛṣis placed the Virāt Puruṣa (Universal Form of the Lord), the first being of the universe, on the kuśa mat and sprinkled Him with water for purification. In this way they conducted the mental sacrifice using the Virāt Puruṣa.

Thus, yajñas are meant for internal purification. External gross offerings (without hiṁsā or violence) are to gradually and steadily develop this internal pure consciousness. One who understands this can be called as a yogi (14) and such a person will never get attached to this material world (15), what to speak of any interest in heaven or other higher heavenly realms.

Therefore, we should never conclude that animals are prescribed to be killed in Vedas for yajña. Hindu scriptures state that, “only the transgressors of defined limits, fools, rascals, atheistic demons, skeptics, cripple minded and cheaters support violence in a yajña”(16).  The great Manu himself has prescribed ‘ahiṁsā’ or ‘non-violence’ in all activities (17).

There is a difference between ‘permission with rules’ (niyama) and ‘that which must be followed’ (vidhi). For instance: People in general are naturally attracted to meat eating, intoxication, and sex. The purpose of the Vedas is to bring about a revolution even in the heart of those, who are completely attached to their senses.

Therefore, Vedās sometimes prescribe that certain meat (as Manu Saṁhitā explains, only five types of animals with five nails are allowed for one who has excessive desire to eat meat) can be consumed, but only after offering; a sip of wine can be consumed only after offering (sautrimani ceremony), and that sex can be performed only within a marriage. Thus, it would be foolish to declare that “Vedas support killing and eating of meat”, etc.? The purpose of the Vedas is not to encourage such acts, but to bring one to the point of renunciation from sense gratification and violence to others (18).

There are other niyamas to be strictly followed: Wine is to be consumed by smelling only (at other times other than the niyama in sautrimani yajña), and animals are to be offered in yajña (sacrifice) by touching only or by offering parts like hair, etc., but they are not to violence. Sex is permitted for producing children only, but not for enjoyment. The people do not know this purification of their duties. Less intelligent materialists cannot understand that such duties in life should be performed purely on the spiritual platform (19).

Yajña is a non-violent procedure (20). A comparison with a doctor handling a patient as against a lion handling its prey will help in illustrating the exact role of Yajñas. A doctor wants to help the patient regain his/her health. Sometimes a surgery may be required. Depending upon the level of intervention (verbal comforting, touch healing, diagnostic workup or surgery) the expert doctor decides the appropriate course of action. Yajña is similar to the intervention required by expert Vedic brāhmaṇas. The word ‘ālambhana’ is the name for the intervention with respect to animals.

It is a gross mistake to interpret the word ‘ālambhana’ as killing. As explained above, just like ‘smelling’; ‘touching’ is what is intended by the word ālambhana. Similarly, sex is only to the duration of placing the semen in the womb of a legitimate wife during Garbhādhāna saṁskāra only. In all these examples, it is external or very momentary to the required extent without violence and over indulgence. As per Vācaspatya kośa the word ‘ālambhana’ or ‘ālabha’ refers to ‘sparṣe’, meaning ‘to touch’. The Panini’s Asṭadhyāyī, the root word ‘labha’ refers to ‘preraṇe’, meaning, ‘to revive’ or ‘to enthuse’.

Vedic scriptures further clarify that one can collect the ingredients to perform yajña physically without committing violence. In collecting fruits and flowers, do we commit any violence? In offering the pure products of cows such as milk, curd, ghee and hair, do we need to commit any violence? In fact, just a prokṣaṇa (sprinkling of water) on the animal or an offering of ingredients such as milk, curd or ghee by a pure devotee is enough and considered as an offering (21).

This is confirmed and clarified again and again in scriptures and by great acāryās in the past. Go-yajña vidhi in Gṛhya sūtrās mention it as: gāvo bhagaḥ (22), meaning, that the opulence in the form of cow products such as milk, curd and ghee should be used. It should not be interpreted as killing the cow (23) . The purpose of Go-yajña is ‘gomaṅgala’ or to bring auspiciousness to cow. The purpose is to bring its health back after delivery (of calf) and pray for the next healthy pregnancy of the cow. This is usually performed in Vasanta rtu (24) (The milk obtained in Vasanta rtu i.e., spring (March-April) is considered by Ayurvedic science to be the best milk-[25]).

In Gobhila Gṛhya Sūtra (3.6.9-14) it is said, “goyajñe payasāścaruḥ”, meaning: In Go-yajña, milk and rice should be used for offering. The same is also confirmed in Parāśara Gṛhya Sūtra (3.8.16), while describing Shūla-gava concept. Therein it is said: “pāyasena anarthaluptaḥ”, meaning, Go-yajña should be performed with milk and milk products. Other interpretation of this stands null and void.

However, mischievous minded, imagine that items such as wine, fish, honey, meat, sesame, etc., as being the ingredients and purpose of a yajña. They argue that after offering them in a yajña, they will consume it as prasāda (sanctified food). Again, scriptures condemn such misinterpretation in strong words: “Only rascals, driven by their pride, greed and illusion, imagined these things from Vedas for their sense gratification” [26].

It is stated that “Enlightened persons perform yajña, including gavālambha yajña, mentally” (27). Further, it is mentioned that “such enlightened persons involve in gavālambha yajña through action by offering ghee, milk and curd. He even completes purṇāhuti with these ingredients only. He uses strands of hair from the tail of the cow to offer to pitṛs (forefathers), horns (naturally peeled ones) for devatā yajñas. Such a person completes the yajña just by touching the cow and by taking the dust of the feet of the cows and placing it on his forehead (28). Even offering rice flakes is enough. Just like all rivers are said to be forms of Sarasvati River, all mountains are forms of pilgrimage places, similarly, rice flakes represents all forms of animals in yajña” (29).

Finally, as the example of a doctor handling a patient shows, the surgery might be the last intervention needed. In this case, it might be risky on the surgery table, while performing the operation. But after a successful operation, a stitch at the end completes the procedure. However, in high risk cases, the patient might die on the surgery table.

Taking the example of surgery, the Vedic yajñas, which involves certain so called violent procedures, is considered complete, only after the successful revival of the animal by chanting powerful Vedic mantras (30). In risky cases, where death might occur, the animal would still not lose, because of successful elevation of its soul to heavenly realms (31).

How can Vedas which proclaim sarve sukhino bhavantu (May all be happy); Oṁ śānti śānti śāntiḥ (Let there be peace, peace, peace); etc., in innumerable verses allow cow killing and eating its meat? How can Vedas which declare cows as aghnyāḥ (that which should never be killed); natā naśaṅti na dabhāti taskaro nāsāmāmitro vyathirā dadharṣati (32) (Let cows not become weak, let thieves not steal them, let sharp weapons not touch them); na hiṅśiṣṭam pitaraṁ mātaraṁ ca (33) (Do not kill those which are capable of becoming your father and mother for your survival), mā govaṁśam puruṣam vadheḥ (34) (Let cows not be killed by humans), etc., yet again propose of cow killing in yajñas?

Can anyone develop love for the Supreme Lord, who is situated in everyone’s heart, by killing other living entities? Moreover, how can they achieve it by killing cows and that too, in the name of Vedas? Therefore, such propagation is a motivated agenda of those, who are bereft of any sense control and good conduct. Such people proudly proclaim themselves as panḍitas or scholars. They steal quotes from Vedas and twist and turn to propagate their own crooked understanding to suit their needs (35). Whereas, a real panḍita is one who sees every living entity with equal vision (36). As per Vedic scriptures, the price is darkest regions of hell for them(37).

So, in conclusion, one need not kill any animal in yajña, what to speak of cows. Instead, one should perform yajña with whatever ingredients that is easily available without violence(38). Any proposal opposing this view should be rejected as irreligion (39).

This was the actual ancient Vedic tradition, where people had equal vision towards all living entities. They were exemplary in their simplicity and always self-satisfied(40). This great tradition was forgotten amidst false propaganda, as we see in the story of Nahusha, who got degraded. This great tradition was revived again by Lord Krishna, who showed that cows are an eternal companion. This tradition was again lost until the ninth incarnation of Lord Vishnu took place as Lord Buddha some 2000 years ago. Buddha propagated ahiṁsā, while apparently rejecting Vedas(41).

Can these powerful yajñas be performed at the present age? No. That is why it is recommended that such yajñas are not allowed at present age. It is said:

aśvamedhaṁ gavālambhaṁ sannyāsaṁ pala-paitrikaṁ

devareṇa sutotpattiṁ kalau pañca vivarjayet

In this Age of Kali, five acts are forbidden: aśvamedha yajña, gavālambha yajña, sannyāsa, oblations of flesh to the forefathers, and begetting children in his brother’s wife(42).

But what is prescribed is harināma sankīrtana as dharma for this age of Kali:

kṛte yad dhyāyato viṣṇuṁ tretāyāṁ yajato makhaiḥ

dvāpare paricaryāyāṁ kalau tad hari-kīrtanāt

Whatever result was obtained in Satya-yuga by meditating on Vishnu, in Tretā-yuga by performing sacrifices, and in Dvāpara-yuga by serving the Lord’s lotus feet can be obtained in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. (Śrimad Bhāgavatam, 12.3.52)

There is an interesting incident in this regard in the life of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, some 500 years ago. During Lord Caitanya’s harinama sankirtana movement, the local Muslim leader, Chand Kazi opposed it and issued orders to stop it. Lord Caitanya then held a huge disobedience movement gathering lakhs of people with torches in hand and marched to Chand Kazi’s palace. Seeing a huge gathering, Chand Kazi was afraid and met with Sri Caitnaya. Lord Chaitanya said, “You drink cows’ milk; therefore the cow is your mother. And the bull produces grains for your maintenance; therefore he is your father. Since the bull and cow are your father and mother, how can you kill and eat them? What kind of religious principle is this? On what strength are you so daring that you commit such sinful activities?”

The Kazi replied, “As you have your scriptures called the Vedas and Puranas, we have our scripture, known as the holy Koran.  According to the Koran, there are two ways of advancement—through increasing the propensity to enjoy and through decreasing the propensity to enjoy. On the path of decreasing attachment, the killing of animals is prohibited. On the path of material activities, there is regulation for killing cows. If such killing is done under the guidance of scripture, there is no sin.  In your Vedic scriptures there is an injunction for killing a cow. On the strength of this injunction, great sages performed sacrifices involving cow-killing.”

Refuting the Kazi’s statement, the Lord immediately replied, “The Vedas clearly enjoin that cows must not be killed. Therefore, every Hindu, whoever he may be, avoids cow-killing.  In the Vedas and Puranas there are injunctions declaring that if one can revive a living being, one can kill it for testing the sacred mantras. Therefore, the great sages sometimes killed old animals, and by chanting Vedic hymns they brought them back to life. The killing and rejuvenation of such old and invalid animals was not truly killing, but an act of great benefit. Formerly, there were powerful Brahmanas who could make such experiments using Vedic hymns, but now, because of the Kaliyuga, Brahmanas are not so powerful. Therefore the killing of animals and bulls for rejuvenation is forbidden.”

Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu continued, “Since, you Muslims cannot bring killed cows back to life, you are responsible for killing them. Therefore, you are going to hell; there is no way for your deliverance.  Cow-killers are condemned to rot in hellish life for as many thousands of years as there are hairs on the body of the cow.” Thus, Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu rejected the understanding of Chand Kazi and the arm chair philosophers who misinterpret Vedic literatures regarding cow protection.

Committing violence and supporting violence, begets violence in return. Sometimes, violence such as a righteous war (Dharma yuddha) may be required to establish peace. But violence itself cannot be the purpose. Violence on other living entities born out of pride, desire to enjoy, enviousness, and ignorance will ultimately yield hate towards the Supreme Absolute Truth resulting in great suffering in this life and next (43). Thus, such people become killers of their own soul (44).

One saint put it aptly: “You are killing innocent cows and other animals—nature will take revenge. Just wait. As soon as the time is right, nature will gather all these rascals and slaughter them. Finished. They’ll fight amongst themselves—Protestants and Catholics, Russia and America, this one and that one. It is going on. Why? That is nature’s law. Tit for tat. “You have killed. Now you kill yourselves” (45).

This is also predicted in the scriptures:

mahakolāhale ghore durdine deśa viplave

gavāṁ tṛṇāni deyani śītalam ca tato jalaṁ

Severe civil unrest, dark days, turbulence in the country is awaiting, wherever cows are killed or do not even get a little bit of grass or cold water to drink. (Brahma Purāṇa, Niyata Kāla Kalpataru, 460)

The Adharma of cow killings will not yield result immediately. Just like a cow does not yield milk immediately after birth. It should grow, become pregnant, deliver, and then she will give milk. Similarly, Adharmic actions will fructify slowly but surely. It will cut off the roots of the performers of Adharma(46). The leaders of the country should therefore heed to these warning signs and take appropriate action to protect cows, other animals and vulnerable human population such as brahmanas (the austere and self-controlled intellectuals who are dedicated to guiding the society), children, cows, old, diseased and women (47) and not come under the influence of wrong propagation.

References

  1. adroheṇaiva bhūtānām alpadroheṇa vā punaḥ, yā vṛttiḥ sa paro dharmastena jīvāmi jābale (Mahabharata, Śanti Parva, 261.6)
  2. nivṛtta tarṣair upagīyamānād bhavauṣadāc śrotra manobhirāmāt, ka uttama śloka guṇānavādāt pumān virajyeta vinā paśughnāt (Śrimad Bhāgavatam, 10.1.4)
  3. yasmāt na udvijate lokaḥ lokān na udvijate ca yaḥ, harśa amarśa bhayaḥ udvegaḥ muktaḥ yaḥ sa ca me priyaḥ (Śrimad Bhagavad-gitā, 12.15)
  4. sa vai pumsam paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhoksaje, ahaitukir apratihata yayatma suprasidati (Śrimad Bhāgavatam, 1.2.6)
  5. sūkṣmatvānna sa vijñātuṁ śakyate bahunnihnavaḥ, upalabhyāntarā cānyānācārānavabudhyate (Mahabharata, Śanti Parva, 262.26)
  6. praṇaṣṭaḥ śāśvato dharmastvanācāreṇa mohitaḥ, tena vaidyastapasvī vā balavānvā vimuhyate  (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 262.20)
  7. śreyān dravyamayād yajñāt jñāna yajñaḥ parantapa, sarvaṁ karmākhilaṁ pārtha jñāne parisamāpyate (Bhagavad-gīta, 4.33)
  8. aham hi sarva yajñānāṁ bhoktā ca prabhur eva ca, na tu mām abhijānanti tattvenātascyavanti te (Bhagavad-gīta, 9.24)
  9. aham yajñaḥ (Bhagavad-gīta, 9.24)
  10. abhisandhāya phalaṁ yajña (Bhagavad-gīta, 17.25)
  11. yajñārthāt karmaṇo anyatra loko ayaṁ karma bandhanaḥ, tad-artham karma kaunteya mukta saṅga samācara (Bhagavad-gīta, 3.9)
  12. evam bahuvidhā yajña vitatā brahmaṇo mukhe, karmajānviddhi tān sarvān evam jñātvā vimokṣyase (Bhagavad-gīta, 4.32)
  13. tasmātpramāṇataḥ kāryo dharmaḥ sūkṣmo vijānatā, ahiṁsā sarvabhūtebhyo dharmebhyo jyāyasī matā (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 265.6)
  14. kāyena manasā buddhyā kevalair indriair api, yoginah karma kurvanti sangam tyaktatvma suddhaye (Bhagavad-gīta, 5.11)
  15. brahmaṇyādhāya karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ, lipyate na sa pāpena padma patraṁ ivāmbhasā (Bhagavad-gīta, 5.10)
  16. avyavasthita maryādair vimūḍhair nāstikair naraiḥ, saṁśayātmabhiravyaktair hiṁsā samanuvarṇitā (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 264.4)
  17. sarvakarmasvahiṁsā hi dharmātmā manurabravīt, kāmakārādvihiṁsanti bahirvedyāṁ paśūnnarāḥ (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 264.4)
  18. loke vyavāyāmiṣa madya seva nityā hi jantor nahi tatra codanā, vyavasthitis teṣu vivāha yajña sura grāhair āśu nivṛttir iṣṭā (Śrimad Bhāgavatam, 11.5.11)
  19. yad ghrāṇa-bhakṣo vihitaḥ surāyās tathā paśor ālabhanaṁ na hiṁsā, evaṁ vyavāyaḥ prajayā no ratyā, imaṁ viśuddhaṁ na viduḥ sva-dharmam (Srimad Bhāgavatam, 11.5.13)
  20. adhvara iti yajnanām (Nirukta 2.7)
  21. yajñiyascaiva ye vrksah vedesu parikalpitah, yaccapi kincitkartavyamanyaccoksaih susamskrtam, mahasatvaih suddhabhavaih sarvam devarhameva tat (Mahābhārata, 265.12)
  22. Kāṭaka Gṛhya Sūtra, 71.1;
  23. gāvo bhagaḥ na tā arvaḥ, iti gomaṅgale pradhānaṁ (Commentary of Devapala to Kāṭaka Gṛhya Sūtra, 71.1)
  24. gavāṁ prasūtānāṁ svāsthyapunaḥ sadgarbhahaṇādhyartho vasante yajñ̃aḥ goyajñaḥ (Commentary of Brāhmaṇabala to Kāṭaka Gṛhya Sūtra, 71.1)
  25. kṣīraṁ yathaktukusumaṁ phalaṁ
  26. yadi yajñāṁśca vṛkṣāṁśca yūpāmcchoddiśya mānavāḥ, vrthā māṁasaṁ na khādanti naiṣa dharmaḥ praśasyate; surā matsyā madhu māṁsamāsavaṁ kṛsaraudanam, dūrtaiḥ pravartitaṁ hyetannaitat vedeṣu kalpitam; mānānmohāccha lobhāccha laulyametat prakalipatam (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 265.8 – 10)
  27. svayaṁ yūpānupādāya yajante svāptadakṣiṇaiḥ, yastathā bhāvitātmā syātsa gāmālabdhumarhati (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 263.33)
  28. ājyena payasā dadhnā pūrṇāhutyā viśeśataḥ, vālaiḥ sṛṅgheṇa pādena sambhavatyeva gaurmukham, (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 263.39)
  29. puroḍaśo hi sarveṣāṁ paṣūnāṁ medhya ucyate, sarvaḥ nadyaḥ sarsvatyaḥ sarveḥ puṇyāḥ śiloccayaḥ (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 263.41)
  30. jīyaite pāre yadi tabe māre praṇi, veda-purāṇe āche hena ājñā-vāṇi; ataeva jarad-gava māre muni-gaṇa, veda mantre siddha kare tāhāra jīvana; jarad-gava hañā yuvā haya āra-vāra, tāte tāra vadha nahe, haya upakāra (Chaitanya Caritāmṛta, Ādi Līlā, 17.159-162)
  31. yajñeṣvālambhanaṁ proktaṁ devataddeśataḥ paśoḥ, himsānāma tad anyatra, tasmāt tāṁ nācared budhaḥ; yato yajñe mṛtā ūrdhvaṁ yānti deve ca paitṛke ato lābhād ālabhanaṁ svargasya na tu maraṇaṁ (Śrīla Madhvāchārya, Bhāgavata Tātparya Nirṇaya, 11.5.13)
  32. Ṛg Veda, 6.28.3
  33. Atharva Veda 6.140.2
  34. Atharva Veda 10.1.29
  35. yathātathyam avijñāya śāstrāṇāṁ śāstradasyavaḥ, brahmastenā nirārambhā dambhamohavaśānugāḥ (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 269.53)
  36. panḍitā sama darṣinaḥ (Bhagavad-gīta, 5.18)
  37. andhaṁ tamaḥ praviśanti ye avidyām upāsate, tato bhūya iva te tamo ya u vidyāyām ratāḥ (Śrī Iśopaniṣad, Mantra 9)
  38. tasmāt daivopapannena muny annenāpi dharmavit, santuṣṭo aharahaḥ kuryān nitya naimittikaḥ kriyāḥ (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, 7.5.13)
  39. vidharmaḥ paradharmaśca ābhāsa upamā chalaḥ, adharma-śākhāḥ pañcema dharma-jño adharmavat tyajet (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, 7.5.12)
  40. āsangṛhasthā bhūyiṣṭham avyatkrāntāḥ svakarmasu, raj̄ānaśca tathā yuktā brāhmaṇaśca yathāvidhi; samāhy ārjava saṁpannaḥ saṁtuṣṭa jñānaniścayaḥ, pratyakṣa dharmāḥ śucayaḥ śraddadhānāḥ parāvare (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, 270.8-9)
  41. nindasi yajña-vidher ahaha śruti-jātaṁ, sadaya hṛdaya-darśita-paśu-ghātaṁ, keśava dhṛta-buddha-śarīra jaya jagadiśa hare (Jayadeva Goswami, Daśāvatāra stotra)
  42. Brahma Vaivarta Purāṇa, Kṛṣṇa Janma Khānda, 185.180
  43. dviṣantaḥ para-kāyeṣu svātmānaṁ harim īśvaram, mṛtake sānubandhe asmin baddha-snehaḥ patanty adhaḥ (Śrimad Bhāgavatam, 11.5.15)
  44. ātmānam ghātayanti te (Śrimad Bhāgavatam, 11.5.16)
  45. Srila Prabhupada, Slaughterhouse civilization, Journey of Self Discovery, 6.5
  46. na adharmaśca carito loke sadhyaḥ phalati gaur iva, śanair āvartyamānas tu kartur bhavati niśphalaḥ (Manu Samhita, 4.172)
  47. kaccit tvaṁ brāhmanaṁ bālaṁ gāṁ vṛddhaṁ rogiṇaṁ strīyaṁ, śaraṇapastraṁ sattvaṁ nātyākṣīḥ śaraṇa-pradaḥ(Śrimad Bhāgavatam, 1.14.41)

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Harsha B. Wari

The author is President of Centre for Traditional Education, Mysore. He tweets at @HarshaBWari